The following is a Yr 12 English Revision Activity (Chisholm College). These are not all technically accurate, nonetheless they are a very handy as a revision device.


Louis Lanternier

1.     Visual code what you can see through what camera does

2.     Audio Code everything  that you can hear in a film

3.     Montage sequence of shots

4.     mise en scene everything in a scene of a movie

5.     technical codes same as visual codes differently worded either can be used in an exam question

6.     symbolic codes codes in a film that hold symbolic meaning

7.     written codes text within a movie such as title, subtitles

8.     pan type of camera movement in which the camera moves from side to side in a stationary position

9.     dolly camera slowly moves towards or away characters, may draw attention to emotion of characters face

10.  P.O.V shot camera shot in which you see what the character sees

11.  Dutch tilt Camera movement when camera tilts to one side

12.  engage grab hold of or capture the viewer

13.  entertain to interest the viewer

14.  values beliefs which guide behaviour

15.  attitudes feelings towards certain ideas or issues

16.  discuss go into detail about a certain subject, discuss the topic

17.  camera movement type of visual code which deals with any movement of the camera

18.  camera shots type of visual code that looks at the type of camera angle i.e. long shot, high, low angle

19.  Humour comedy, parts of a film which position people to laugh, may deal with types of humour; black comedy, satire.

Vanessa Wills

  1. representation-stereotypical characters, attitudes and values
  2. explain- elaborate on
  3. entertain grab ur attention
  4. educate show us the facts
  5. persuade- encourages us to endorse the documenters views
  6.  inform- tell us


1.     alienated : to cause to become unfriendly or hostile; estrange: alienate a friend; alienate potential supporters by taking extreme positions. To cause to become withdrawn or unresponsive; isolate or dissociate emotionally

2.     assertive : Inclined to bold or confident assertion; aggressively self-assured

3.     authoritarian : characterized by or favoring absolute obedience to authority, as against individual freedom: an authoritarian regime. Of, relating to, or expecting unquestioning obedience.

4.     authoritative white figures/ white authority figures The power to enforce laws, exact obedience, command, determine, or judge. One that is invested with this power, especially a government or body of government officials: land titles issued by the civil authority. Power assigned to another; authorization: Deputies were given authority to make arrests. A public agency or corporation with administrative powers in a specified field: a city transit authority.

5.     biblical allusions: of, relating to, or contained in the Bible. An erroneous perception of reality. An erroneous concept or belief.

6.     bigoted: obstinately and blindly attached to some creed, opinion practice, or ritual; unreasonably devoted to a system or party, and illiberal toward the opinions of others.

7.     binary opposition: Characterized by or consisting of two parts or components; twofold. Placed or located directly across from something else or from each other:

8.     blatant abuses of power and position

9.     bombastic: Grandiloquent, pompous speech or writing.

10.  challenges certain values and attiudes: Calling for full use of one's abilities or resources in a difficult but stimulating effort:

11.  colloquial language, slang, A kind of language occurring chiefly in casual and playful speech, made up typically of short-lived coinages and figures of speech that are deliberately used in place of standard terms for added raciness, humor, irreverence, or other effect.

12.  contrasting dialogue: To set in opposition in order to show or emphasize differences:

13.  contrasting value system and ideologies

14.  cultural imperialism (one country taking over another and imposing their culture on the conquered) Of or relating to culture or cultivation. The policy of extending a nation's authority by territorial acquisition or by the establishment of economic and political hegemony over other nations.

15.  cultural practices:

16.  deconstruction: philosophical theory of criticism (usually of literature or film) that seeks to expose deep-seated contradictions in a work by delving below its surface meaning

17.  defiant: Marked by defiance; boldly resisting.

18.  discourse : white  / black discourse; discourse is in part our language bound up with our culture and whole way of looking at the world; white discourse carries with it  lots of cultural meaning; Verbal expression in speech or writing.

19.  disempowered: To deprive of power or influence.

20.  dominant: Exercising the most influence or control. Most prominent, as in position; ascendant.

21.  dominant white culture

22.  dominion (having power over): A territory or sphere of influence or control; a realm.

23.  double standards

24.  empowered / disempowered

25.  endorse / challenge values and attitudes: To write one's signature on the back of (a check, for example) as evidence of the legal transfer of its ownership, especially in return for the cash or credit indicated on its face.

26.  endorses certain values and attitudes

27.  exploitation: The act of employing to the greatest possible advantage

28.  foregrounded: The part of a scene or picture that is nearest to and in front of the viewer.

29.  foreshadowing: To present an indication or a suggestion of beforehand; presage.

30.  gaps

31.  grandiloquent: Pompous or bombastic speech or expression.

32.  Great Depression: period of the 1930s which the world economy fell into recession, US stock market crashed 1929

33.  hegemony (dominant ideology, having powerover ie white hegemony over the blacks)

hypocrisy / white hypocrisy: The predominant influence, as of a state, region, or group, over another or others

34.  ideology / ideological imperialism: The body of ideas reflecting the social needs and aspirations of an individual, group, class, or culture.

35.  inflated language:

36.  irony: The use of words to express something different from and often opposite to their literal meaning.

37.  marginalised: To relegate or confine to a lower or outer limit or edge, as of social standing.

38.  marginalised groups

39.  Millimurra: surname

40.  Moore River: place in WA where the aboriginals were taught to be like white people

41.  motif : objects in the play as motifs -ie something that becomes like a symbol and carries with it, has embedded in it certain other meanings and associations. The dogs are made to become emblems of this aboriginal family's togetherness / connectedness / need for each other: A recurrent thematic element in an artistic or literary work

42.  naturalised: S a revisionist text  (Jack Davis revises the previous white man's version - the only version available - of WA history ): planted so as to give an effect of wild growth; "drifts of naturalized daffodils"

43.  Nyoongar: type of aboriginal

44.  Oombulgarri (or Ooombulgurri)

45.  oppression: the act of oppressing; arbitrary and cruel exercise of power: There can be no really pervasive system of oppression... without the consent of the oppressed

46.  paralanguage (means non-verbal language)

47.  pompous tone

48.  position readers

49.  positions the audience to respond

50.  powerless: Lacking strength or power; helpless and totally ineffectual

51.  priveliged: A special advantage, immunity, permission, right, or benefit granted to or enjoyed by an individual, class, or caste

52.  protagonist: The main character in a drama or other literary work. In ancient Greek drama, the first actor to engage in dialogue with the chorus, in later dramas playing the main character and some minor characters as well.

53.  antagonist: One who opposes and contends against another; an adversary. The principal character in opposition to the protagonist or hero of a narrative or drama.

54.  racial  / sexual discrimination: The belief that race accounts for differences in human character or ability and that a particular race is superior to others.

55.  rebellious: Resisting treatment or control; unruly

56.  reinforcing the stautus quo: 

57.  representations of class, race, gender

58.  repressed: To hold back by an act of volition: couldn't repress a smirk.

59.  To put down by force, usually before total control has been lost; quell: repress a rebellion.

60.  segregation: The act or process of segregating or the condition of being segregated. The policy or practice of separating people of different races, classes, or ethnic groups, as in schools, housing, and public or commercial facilities, especially as a form of discrimination.

61.  self-important: to believe that you are more important then others
stereotyped characters / attitudesA conventional, formulaic, and oversimplified conception, opinion, or image. One that is regarded as embodying or conforming to a set image or type.

62.  silenced: The condition or quality of being or keeping still and silent. The absence of sound; stillness.

63.  socially superior: to have higher status in society

64.  symbolic use of setting: to use the actual place, time and sets as a symbol to present meaninG

65.  tone : haughty ; arrogant; colloquial; bombastic / inflated/ self-important; educated;condescending; To give a particular tone or inflection to.

66.  traditional aboriginal society: family structure ect

67.  traditional practices and beliefs: things people used to do

68.  truncated speech: cut short speech

69.  underpriveliged: People who are not respected in society

70.  Verbal and non-verbal language. Expressed in spoken rather than written words; oral,

71.  verbal and non-vernal language / techniques: techniques used to create meaning

72.  vernacular: The standard native language of a country or locality. The everyday language spoken by a people as distinguished from the literary language.

73.  weapon of resistance: what people use to resist oppression, in this case its humour

74.  wetjalas: white person

75.  white oppression: the marginaliation of a different race by white people. Generally the removal of land and basic rights

76.  Setting: To put in a specified position;

77.  Character: The combination of qualities or features that distinguishes one person, group, or thing from another.

78.  stage directions: the body language and movements around the stage the actors must do

79.  costumes: what the actors where when they are in charecter

80.  props: objects used in the play

81.  diegetic:

82.  non-diegtic:

83.  sound effects: ah sound used to create meaning

84.  lighting: lights used to create meaning

85.  music: melediolic sound that is used to create atmosphear

86.  exposition: beginning of the play/story

87.  climax: point of maximum tension

88.  resolution: the wind down after the climax the ending

89.  symbolism: the use of symbols to show a theme or an idea

90.  use of space: ability of the director to used the stage to its greatest pontential


Expository Texts

Aims:     intentions and purposes of the text/ author
    Instruct: giving orders/ telling people what they should do.
    Inform: Educate/teach
    Explain: elaborate, clarify.
    Convince: change someones opinions or reinforce them
    Reveal/Arouse Awareness: Expose and explore issues
    Warn: tell people something is wrong, look out!
    Entertain: amusing, engaging
Purpose:  reason for writing the text
    Engage: grabs attention, want more.
    Response: way we feel, think, react to something
    Shaping: constructing response in order to engage.
Language: style of the words used by the author
    Figurative Language: vivid, evocative, using figures of speech
         Imagery: Comparisons, creating mental images using words.
Metaphor: Comparison without using like or as.
         Similes: Comparison using like or as
Connotative/Emotive Language: Words packed with associated meaning
    Descriptive Language: Creates vivid scene and atmosphere.
    Dialogue: What someone says
    Colloquial Language: common society language, Slang,
    Tone: the attitude of the language. Eg hostile tone
    Choice of Words: The words that are chosen (self explanatory)
Structure: The way the text is put together
    Sub-headings: headings within a heading
    Chapters: a part of a text
    Analogies: similar to metaphor, comparison
Allusions: indirect reference to make things easier to understand.
Style: The manner of writing the author uses.
    Anecdotes: small story to give an example
Sentence/Paragraph Style: the length and complexity of sentences and paragraphs
    Repetition: repeating same words or sentences/ ideas
    Rephrasing: Saying the same thing in different ways.
    Argument: a conflict of ideas/attitudes/values
    Build Case: make an argument
Humour: jokes, sarcasm etc in order to entertain/make point
Facts: true information
Statistics: facts
Rhetorical Questions: question that doesnt need to be answered.
Sources: references, used to enhance argument.
Point of View: perspective the Author chooses to portray.
    Persona: adopting a personality to relate to readers.
    1st person POV: using , we, personal voice.
Genre: Type of specific style used in the text.

The following group have provided a list of terms only no meanings.



X     Meanings
X     Persuade
X     Values
X     Attitudes
X     Context
X     Structure
X     Elements
X     Techniques
X     Determine
X     Response
X     Outrage
X     Barometer
X     Selection
X     Understanding
X     Beliefs
X     Contribute
X     Shaped
X     Consumed
X     Establish
X     Reflect
X     Reinforce
X     Entertain
X     Contrived fictions
X     Understood
X     Reflect
X     Employ
X     Relationship
X     Combined
X     Extend
X     Version of reality
X     Pleasure
X     Themes
X     Dramatises

    Argue for/against
    To what extent
    How areK..constructed
    Discuss how
    Discuss the significance
    Construct an argument

TERMINOLOGY FOR NOVEL. (Maddie, Caris, Natalie and Sarah)

ATTITUDES: are our feelings towards certain idea or issues. Attitudes dictate how we react in concrete situations. Authors reveal certain attitudes within their texts whether these texts be fiction or non-fiction, print or non-print

VALUES: are beliefs, which guide our behaviour. They define what we accept as good, right or acceptable. We may have our own personally thought-out and constructed values but many of the values we accept are socially or culturally constructed.

Characterisation: The method a writer uses to reveal the personality of a character in a literary work: Methods may include (1) by what the character says about himself or herself; (2) by what others reveal about the character; and (3) by the character's own actions

Connotation and Denotation: The denotation of a word is its dictionary definition. The word wall, therefore, denotes an upright structure which encloses something or serves as a boundary. The connotation of a word is its emotional content. In this sense, the word wall can also mean an attitude or actions which prevent becoming emotionally close to a person.

Irony: Irony takes many forms. In irony of situation, the result of an action is the reverse of what the actor expected.

Plot: The structure of a story. The sequence in which the author arranges events in a story. The structure of a five-act play often includes the rising action, the climax, the falling action, and the resolution.

Symbolism: A device in literature where an object represents an idea.

Diction: An author's choice of words. Since words have specific meanings, and since one's choice of words can affect feelings, a writer's choice of words can have great impact in a literary work. The writer, therefore, must choose his words carefully. Discussing his novel "A Farewell to Arms" during an interview, Ernest Hemingway stated that he had to rewrite the ending thirty-nine times. When asked what the most difficult thing about finishing the novel was, Hemingway answered, "Getting the words right."

Atmosphere: the general feeling or mood in a work of literature

Dialogue: the exact words that a character says.

Metaphor: A word or phrase that draws a comparison between two things. It does not use the words like or as.

Climax: the most suspenseful part of the story

Setting: the time, place, and atmosphere in which a story's events occur

Protagonist: the central character of the story.

Complication: any obstacle that increases the tension of the story.

Imagery: the use of selected details to describe one thing in terms of another.

Conflict: the major struggle between characters or opposite forces.

Resolution: the conclusion of the story, includes the story's action after the climax until the end of the story.

POINT OF VIEW: A piece of literature contains a speaker who is speaking either in the first person, telling things from his or her own perspective, or in the third person, telling things from the perspective of an onlooker. The perspective used is called the Point of View, and is referred to either as first person or third person. If the speaker knows everything including the actions, motives, and thoughts of all the characters, the speaker is referred to as omniscient (all-knowing). If the speaker is unable to know what is in any character's mind but his or her own, this is called limited omniscience.

GENRE: A literary type or form. Drama is a genre of literature. Within drama, genre include tragedy, comedy and other forms.

CHARACTERS: A person, or any thing presented as a person, e. g., a spirit, object, animal, or natural force, in a literary work. In a cartoon scene, firemen may be putting out a fire which a coyote has deliberately started, while a hydrant observes the scene fearfully. The firemen, the coyote and the hydrant would all be considered characters in the story. If a billowy figure complete with eyes, nose, and mouth representing the wind thwarts the efforts of the firemen, the wind, too, qualifies as a character. Animals who figure importantly in movies of live drama are considered characters.

THEME: An ingredient of a literary work which gives the work unity. The theme provides an answer to the question What is the work about? There are too many possible themes to recite them all in this document. Each literary work carries its own theme(s). Unlike plot which deals with the action of a work, theme concerns itself with a work's message or contains the general idea of a work.