are the manifestation of our VALUES, expressed or shown through
what we say and do.
Our VALUES make us accept certain things and reject others. How we act and what we say represents our ATTITUDES - i.e. our VALUES made manifest.
(NOTE: Do not talk aout attitudesandvalues or valuesandattitudes as one and the same thing. Effective responses will differentiate between these terms and expand with appropriate examples.)
Values make up a group's belief system. This belief system is made up of a socially and culturally constructed set of value that have developed and will continue to develop over time. These exist for society to
operate with the least amount of conflict.
Values determine what people in a community commonly accept as good or right. While we may
have our own personally thought-out and constructed set of values, the majority of those values we accept are socially and culturally constructed. (See http://www.differencebetween.com/difference-between-social-and-vs-cultural-factors/) Our values, the things we believe are good/bad, right/wrong, acceptable/unacceptable etc have become naturalised and normalised to us.
Society develops a value system or a set of values and conveys
these to us through
the family, schools, governments, religious institutions, the media, and so forth. Nationalities often have different or differing values based on their particular religious or cutural beliefs.
how our values are manifested in our actions and thoughts; they are our feelings towards certain ideas
or issues. Attitudes dictate how we react in particular situations.
Authors and creators of texts reveal certain attitudes within their texts and convey these through the use of specific language, (written, visual, spoken, music, movement, design etc) to position
audiences to accept their ideas and their attitudes towards them.
As readers or viewers we need to be aware that texts seek to position
us to accept certain attitudes and ways of looking at the world. We need to be be critically aware and prepared to question the ideas and values upon which any views about the world are based. (Avoid discussing a text creator's attitudes as either positive or negative towards some value! Don't be lazy; identify what it is they think and/or feel.)
It is essential when considering the values and attitudes of any text to be aware of the context or surrounding circumstances. These may include personal, social, cultural, economic, political, historical and geographical factors. How anything is perceived depends on where it is perceived or seen from. Being aware of context is to be aware of
- the reader's attitudes and values;
- the author's attitudes and values;
- the attitudes and values in which the text is set (where, when).
Ideology is a
belief system that consists of certain values and attitudes. It
is a collective view of the world. It may be secular and/or religious.
Ideology unconsciously determines our 'way of seeing', creates
values and set standards that guide our attitudes.
Another definition: ideology is a system of assumptions by which a society operates,
and which permeates everything it produces, including literature.
all the things or 'ways of seeing' that we take for granted. They
are naturally assumed to be true and become part of how we look at the world. However it is important to remember that these assumptions are socially constructed. We become so used to
hearing them and taking them for granted that they give the appearance
of truth or fact.
Issues are areas
of conflict which concern a particular group. - something controversial
within a neighbourhood, state, country or international community. Examples may include include litter, sexual discrimination, migration, global warming. An issue can often arise as a consequence
of a clash between diffferent sets of VALUES, ATTITUDES and/or IDEOLOGIES.
- Pat Rafter's attitudes
- The Big Soda
- Caitlin Jenner preaches acceptance
- Climate change
- Relative values - 'Sparrow's death shock a nation'
- Shooting an Elephant - George Orwell
COMPREHENSION COMMENT REVISION
1. Consider the techniques employed by
an author to convey his/her values and attitudes. Comment on
your response to these values and attitudes.
2. What values and attitudes are
presented? (Select one text above)
3. Consider your reactions to or reading
of one passage. You might consider your attitudes and values and/or
other reading experiences.
5. Discuss the ways in which one passage
employs narrative conventions and style of language to influence
the reader's response.
6. Comment on the issues and values in
this passage / these passages.
7. What attitudes to the theme /issues
raised in this article / passage does the writer encourage in
you? Analyse the techniques used by the author to shape your response.
8. How does the writer use setting / character
/ point of view / choice of language / narrative structure / dialogue
to position the reader in relation to the issue raised in this
article/ passage? (Select the most relevant three for the passage
you are analysing.)
9. Consider the comment the author makes
on human values and social structures. Make detailed references
to support your answer.
10. What attitude to x does the writer
encourage in you, the reader? Analyse the techniques that have
been used in achieving this response.
11. How does the use of setting, choice
of language and selection of detail position the reader to respond
to certain minority groups.
12. How has the the writer challenged /
endorsed your attitudes to the subject of this article / passage?